How does the size of an atom affect its ability to attract additional electrons?

Electronegativity is a property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons (or electron density) toward itself. An atom’s electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the size of the atom. The higher its electronegativity, the more an element attracts electrons.

How do you think the size of an atom will affect its ability to attract additional electrons quizlet?

When the atomic size increases, the outer shells are farther away. The principle quantum number increases and average electron density moves farther from nucleus. The electrons of the valence shell have less attraction to the nucleus and, as a result, can lose electrons more readily.

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How does gaining electrons affect the size of the atom?

The gain of an electron adds more electrons to the outermost shell which increases the radius because there are now more electrons further away from the nucleus and there are more electrons to pull towards the nucleus so the pull becomes slightly weaker than of the neutral atom and causes an increase in atomic radius.

Why are smaller atoms better at attracting electrons?

4 Answers. As you move from left to right across a period, the number of protons in the nucleus increases. The electrons are thus attracted to the nucleus more strongly, and the atomic radius is smaller (this attraction is much stronger than the relatively weak repulsion between electrons).

Do larger or smaller atoms have stronger electron attraction?

Number of energy levels: the more energy levels an atom has, the lower the net electrostatic attraction and the radii of the atom is larger. Because this then creates a bigger distance between ‘neighbouring’ atoms, electrons from other atoms experience less electrostatic attraction to the nucleus of another atom.

How does the radius of an atom affect the ability of the protons in the nucleus to hold on to and attract electrons?

In the periodic table, the atomic radius of elements tends to decrease as you move across a row from left to right. The number of protons increases left to right, leading to a greater attractive force in the nucleus. The stronger attraction pulls the electrons closer in, reducing the radius.

Why do larger atoms tend to have lower first ionization energies?

The more protons in the nucleus, the stronger the attraction of the nucleus to electrons. This stronger attraction makes it more difficult to remove electrons. Within a group, the ionization energy decreases as the size of the atom gets larger.

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What affects the size of an atom?

The actual trends that are observed with atomic size have to do with three factors. These factors are: the number of protons in the nucleus (called the nuclear charge). the number of energy levels holding electrons and the number of electrons in the outer energy level.

Why does the size of the atom increases down the group?

The growth of nuclear charge pulls more intensely the electrons, pulling them closer to the nucleus. … The number of energy levels (n) increases in a group downwards, since there is a larger distance between the nucleus and the outermost orbital. This results in an atomic radius that is greater.

Why does the size of an atom decrease in a period?

Across a period, effective nuclear charge increases as electron shielding remains constant. A higher effective nuclear charge causes greater attractions to the electrons, pulling the electron cloud closer to the nucleus which results in a smaller atomic radius.

Why do atoms attract electrons?

The valence electrons are involved in bonding one atom to another. The attraction of each atom’s nucleus for the valence electrons of the other atom pulls the atoms together. As the attractions bring the atoms together, electrons from each atom are attracted to the nucleus of both atoms, which “share” the electrons.

What atom attracts electrons more strongly?

Of all the elements, fluorine atoms attract electrons most strongly.

Why elements with bigger atomic size are have very low electron attraction?

This means that an added electron is further away from the atom’s nucleus compared with its position in the smaller atom. With a larger distance between the negatively-charged electron and the positively-charged nucleus, the force of attraction is relatively weaker. Therefore, electron affinity decreases.

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What happens to the size of the atom when the number of electrons and protons increases?

As the atomic number increases along each row of the periodic table, the additional electrons go into the same outermost shell, causing the atomic radius to decrease due to the increasing nuclear charge.

What happens to force of attraction down a group?

Since the force of attraction increases across a period the trends noticed down a group are reversed.